Migraine, headache: symptoms, treatment | How and why does it come? | varieties of it?

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It should be understood that headaches can be caused by normal, harmless causes (eg, stress, anxiety), and unusual, dangerous diseases.

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Headache is a health problem that afflicts everyone irrespective of age, caste, class, gender, etc. In real life, not everyone is immune to this at some point in time.

According to the World Health Organization, half of the world’s population is affected by this at least once a year, so you can understand how common this problem is!

What is a headache? How and why does it come? Are there any varieties of it?

The pain in the head is called a headache. The muscles, blood vessels, nerves around the head, the top layer of the bones in the skull, and the layers called “meninges” that surround the brain, all of these have receptors that convey pain.

Especially the lower part of the brain reacts strongly to this pain. Strangely, due to the absence of pain receptors in the brain, the brain does not feel pain even if it is damaged or cut.

Pain is felt only when it expands due to swelling or due to tumors and increased pressure.

How a headache occurs is that pain receptors react when something is hit and create intense responses in the nerve cells there, so that substances called peptides and serotonin are released. These cause inflammation in the brain membranes and blood vessels. Blood vessels also dilate. This whole process communicates pain to the brain. Certain medications reduce headaches by blocking this serotonin.

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Heads and types

The IHS International Headache Society divides headaches into two main types.

  • Primary headache
  • Secondary headache

Primary headaches are headaches caused by stress or trauma to the muscles, blood vessels, and nerves around the head.

They come at the age of 20-40 years.

Ninety percent of headaches are primary headaches.

These often come and go. are harmless. These are not caused by any other diseases. It is believed that the chemical reaction in the brain is the reason for this.


  • Fatigue, physical or mental stress
  • Insomnia
  • oversleeping
  • Much crying and anguish
  • Dehydration
  • Constipation
  • In front of computers, in the office, at work, due to prolonged sitting in one position, the muscles become tight.
  • These are the most common reasons.
  • Again primary headaches can be divided into three types namely tension headaches, cluster headaches, migraine or vascular headaches.
  • Tension Headache: This is a very common headache. Every year 1.6 billion people of the world population are affected by it. It is more common in females.
  • Physical or mental stress is the main cause.
  • Symptoms: Tight feeling around the head.
  • It usually comes in the afternoon.
  • It can spread from the neck to the head or from the head to the neck.
  • It can be from a few hours to a few days.

Cluster headaches: These are more common in males. One side of the head, pain around one eye, redness of the eye, watery discharge. Eye closing and cheek swelling may also happen once in a while.

This headache comes every now and then during the day.

They may appear for a few weeks or months and then disappear for a while, hence they are called “cluster headaches”.

It is believed that this is due to an abnormality in the “hypothalamus” (biological clock).

More than a million people suffer from it every year, resulting in lost hours of valuable work. It is treated with the “triptan” group of drugs.

Migraine or Vascular Headache: This is called Parswaneppi. It is very painful. It comes next to the head. 848 million people suffer from this problem worldwide every year.

Symptoms of pain: Throbbing and hammering, this is called “throbbing or pulsatile headache”. It is more common in women.

Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, intolerance to light and noise, and desire for darkness and silence.

Harasses for a few hours to a few days. It also causes loss of working hours. Statistics show that migraine is the sixth leading cause of sick leave worldwide.

Reason: Apart from genetic factors, environmental and climatic conditions also have an effect.

Some time ago, those who thought that changes in the blood vessels in the brain were the cause, now think that the irregular functioning of the nerves is the cause of migraine, thus the vascular theory has gone backwards.

Warning signs before a migraine headache

  • Zig zag lines appear before the eyes
  • Dark eyes
  • Light before the eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Growing up
  • Noises in the ears
  • Inability to speak
  • One side of the body is like being pierced by needles

Involuntary jerky movements

These symptoms indicate that a migraine headache is coming and are called “aura”.

  • Triggering factors
  • Certain types of strong odors
  • Certain types of food
  • Insomnia
  • Constipation
  • stress
  • Premenstrual tension
  • Alcohol especially red wine
  • Smoking
  • These are all trigger factors that trigger migraine headaches.
  • Even after the migraine subsides, you may feel lethargic, hyperactive, depressed, lethargic, lethargic, and moody.

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Migraines are again divided into three types

Classical Migraine: Symptoms include aura, headache, and vomiting

Common Migraine: No “aura”, headache, vomiting

Complicated Migraine: Neurological deficit

Prevention or Prevention of Migraines If you have more than four attacks in a month, medications are used to prevent migraines.

Secondary headaches: These are headaches caused by some diseases in the body.

Fevers, viral, bacterial, TB, or abscesses

In the event of a severe blow to the head————————————————————————————————————————————————–

In swellings and bruises of the teeth

Eyes: Vision defects, tumors, acute congestive glaucoma

In ear problems: swellings and abscesses

In nose problems: The most important thing to mention here is the “sinus headache” that comes in “sinusitis” near the forehead, the first part of the nose, near the cheekbones, it gets worse when bending forward, coughing or sneezing.

Gastrointestinal problems, vomiting, diarrhea,

When BP is high

Headache is the main symptom of brain tumor and other cancers

In stroke, headache is more common in brain stroke

Elevation of thalassemia and BP in pregnant women leads to horse flatulence.

In young children i.e. between the ages of 10-20, the eggs of the worms lodged in the brain can cause headaches and fits.

Meningitis and Encephalitis are severe headaches.

Some strange nods

  • Primary calf headache: A severe headache that occurs after a severe cough or sneeze.
  • Primary Exertional Headache: A headache that occurs after exercise
  • Ice Cream Headache: A headache caused by eating very cold foods quickly.
  • Rebound Headache: A headache caused by suddenly stopping the use of over-the-counter headache medications
  • Primary sex headache: headache after intercourse and during orgasm. Sometimes it is caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage. That’s why it should not be neglected.

But do headaches occur for normal reasons? Or by knowing whether it is caused by unusual and dangerous diseases, by carefully conducting appropriate tests and finding out the causes of the disease, by giving appropriate treatment, life risks can be avoided.

If the following symptoms appear along with the headache, then the cause of the headache must be searched

  • Having a fever
  • Weight loss
  • Headache after forty years of age
  • Having diseases like cancer and HIV
  • Sudden worsening of headache
  • Headache after a blow to the head
  • loss of consciousness
  • Having fits
  • Numbness of hands and feet

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Diagnosis of disease

Headache is actually not a disease but a symptom of many diseases. By talking to the patient and getting to know the symptoms of the disease in a comprehensive way, most of the disease can be diagnosed, i.e. is it primary headache or secondary headache? It becomes awareness.

In addition to advising to reduce the physical and mental stress that is the cause of primary headache, pain killers such as paracetamol and acetaminophen, which are not dangerous, can be used on the doctor’s advice.

In secondary headache

Checking BP

Conducting blood tests

Conducting neurological tests

X-ray tests

CT scan


CT Angiogram

All these help in diagnosing the disease and finding the root cause of the headache. Once the root cause of the headache is known, treatment becomes easier.


Things to follow to reduce primary headaches

Reducing stress

Practicing relaxation techniques

Regular exercise. This relaxes the muscles.

The right balance of food

Migraine sufferers should not take certain substances. Cheese, nuts, alcohol, smoking should be avoided and it is better to stay away from unpleasant smells.

If you get at least eight hours of good and peaceful sleep a day, many diseases will go away.

Bathing with warm water, yoga and meditation can reduce mental stress and bring peace.

In addition to making changes in life style, if necessary, choose and use safe pain killers with the doctor’s advice.

Aspirin should not be used in children.

Migraine sufferers can use suma triptan, amlotriptan, and tricyclic anti-depressants for treatment and often as a prophylactic to prevent frequent attacks, in addition to resting quietly in a dark room in a cool environment.

Medicines should be used depending on the other symptoms.

Headaches caused by meningitis, brain tumor and other diseases can be prevented by proper treatment of the respective diseases.

Medicines should be used depending on the other symptoms, that is, if you are vomiting, use anti-emetics. Headaches caused by meningitis, brain tumor and other diseases can be prevented by appropriate treatment of those diseases.

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